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     Mouse monoclonal antibodies
     Rat monoclonal antibodies
     Polyclonal antibodies
     Antibody purification
     Peptide synthesis
     Antigen preparation
     Antibody characterization
     Antibody modification
     Antibody sequencing
Antigen preparation
  • Antigens provided by customers
  • Antigens expressed by E. coli
  • Coupling peptides onto carrier proteins

Antigens provided by customers
Antigens can be peptides cross-linked on to carrier proteins, protein antigens or fusion proteins. They should be soluble, not toxic, not infectious and at least 80% pure judged by SDS-PAGE. Molecular mass of antigens should preferably be over 20 kDa.
The minimum amount of antigens required is listed below.
Antibodies to be generated
Amount required
Rat monoclonals
1.5 mg
Murine monoclonals
1 mg
Rat polyclonals
0.3 mg
Rabbit polyclonals
2 mg
Antigens expressed by E. coli

We charge in three steps. The first step is DNA synthesis and insertion of DNA into expression vector. We charge $84 for DNA less than 300 bp and $0.25/bp for DNA between 300-3000bp.

The second step is to do test expression, which includes transformation of bacteria, growing bacterial in small volumes, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting for cell lysate. We charge $200 for this step irrelevant of the results.

If proteins can be expressed from test expression, we shall do large expression and purification. We shall charge 400 USD for purification of 2-3 mg proteins and each of 1 mg additional antigen costs $100.

If customers want to get proteins only in soluble forms, we charge $500 for optimising expression conditions and $500 for expression of 2-3 mg soluble proteins and each of 1 mg additional antigen costs $100.


Coupling peptides onto carrier proteins
We use bovine serum albumin (BSA), keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) or Pierce Blue Carrier as carrier proteins. Peptide should contain a cysteine residue. We charge 100 USD for coupling 2-5 mg peptide onto carrier protein.
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